A major part of the integration of large-scale offshore renewables into the Eu­ropean energy systems will be realised by applying high-voltage direct current (HVDC) technology. The integration of a high number of converters delivered by various manufacturers (and thus based on different technologies) explains the need for interoperability among the different components of the HDVC system.

This third position paper on offshore development outlines Transmission System Operator (TSO) Community’s perspective on solving the technical challeng­es related to the interoperability of the main components of off­shore (HVDC) systems. It argues that, for the cost-efficient and scalable development of the HVDC grid infrastructure, the single-vendor approach must evolve towards mul­ti-vendor and multi-purpose capabilities for offshore HVDC systems.

The proposals and recommendations for achieving HVDC interoperability are also applicable to onshore HVDC grids.