ENTSO-E Technopedia

Welcome to ENTSO-E’s new tool, the Technopedia!

Energy transition is underway, we help you to keep up with the new technologies related to the Transmission System Operators. Below you will find factsheets of different innovative and state-of-the-art technologies covering the fields of transmission assets, system operations, digital and flexibility solutions. These up-to-date sheets will help you to understand each technology and their advantages, and also to show their readiness level.

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Found 65 Technologies

High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Cables

Superconducting cables are based on special superconducting materials that are cooled down to extrem...

Readiness Level
TRL 5
TRL 8

5G Digital Cellular Networks

5G is the 5th generation cellular network technology that provides broadband access. The 5G wireless...

Readiness Level
TRL 7

Artificial Intelligence

In modern life, Artificial Intelligence (AI) already plays a significant role in social media and st...

Readiness Level
TRL 6

Static Synchronous Series Compensator

The static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) is a power quality FACTS device that employs a VSC ...

Readiness Level
TRL 7

Distributed Ledger Technology / Blockchain

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is an asset database that is shared and stored across a decentra...

Readiness Level
TRL 7
TRL 9

Cloud and Edge Computing

Cloud computing is a type of computing that relies on shared computing resources rather than hav...

Readiness Level
TRL 6
TRL 7

Digital Twin

The new digital twin (DT) approach in production and AM claims to optimise the value chains in vario...

Readiness Level
TRL 6

Internet of Things

The Internet was established to transfer files and share information between local area networks – t...

Readiness Level
TRL 7

Satellite Applications

Satellites can be used for many different applications such as communication, broadcasting, navigati...

Readiness Level
TRL 7
TRL 9

Software-Defined Security

Software-defined security (SDS) is a model in which the information security is controlled. The func...

Readiness Level
TRL 5
TRL 9

Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)

A STATic synchronous COMpensator (STATCOM) is a fast-acting device capable of providing or absorbing...

Readiness Level
TRL 8

Voltage Source Converters

Voltage Source Converters (VSC) are self-commutated converters to connect HVAC and HVDC systems usin...

Readiness Level
TRL 4
TRL 9

Gas Insulated Substation

Gas insulated substation (GIS) consist of components where active parts on high voltage potential ar...

Readiness Level
TRL 3
TRL 9

Large-Scale DC Overlay Grid Concepts

DC overlay systems are quite radical evolutions of the legacy of AC interconnected systems developed...

Readiness Level
TRL 4
TRL 9

Synchronous Condenser

A synchronous condenser (also called a synchronous capacitor or synchronous compensator) is a DC-exc...

Readiness Level
TRL 7
TRL 9

DC Gas Insulated Switchgear – DC Gas Insulated Substation

Gas-insulated switchgear assemblies for DC application (DC GIS) provide a compact technical solution...

Readiness Level
TRL 4
TRL 9

Gas Insulated Lines (GIL) AC

In Gas Insulated Lines (GIL), the inner conductor is located in a pipe the approximate diameter of w...

Readiness Level
TRL 7
TRL 9

New Tower Concepts

The main components of OHLs are towers, tower foundation, conductors and insulators. The task of the...

Readiness Level
TRL 4
TRL 9

Phase Shifting Transformers

A phase shifting transformer (PST) is a specialised type of transformer, typically used to control t...

Readiness Level
TRL 9

Adaptive Protection Technology

A conventional protection system has relays with fixed setting parameters. With the growing complexi...

Readiness Level
TRL 2
TRL 9

Mixed Technology Substations

Mixed technology substations (MTS) incorporate the use of air-insulated and gas insulated components...

Readiness Level
TRL 5
TRL 9

Partial Undergrounding

Partial undergrounding with cables can be a solution when public acceptance or environmental impact ...

Readiness Level
TRL 8

Circuit Breakers - AC

A circuit breaker (CB) refers to a mechanical switching device, capable of making, carrying and brea...

Readiness Level
TRL 3
TRL 9

HVDC Circuit Breakers

The HVDC circuit breaker is a switching device that interrupts the flow of normal and abnormal direc...

Readiness Level
TRL 3
TRL 6

Voltage Uprating

An increase of the voltage level allows for a significant increase of the transmission capacity in t...

Readiness Level
TRL 7
TRL 9

(Variable) Shunt Reactor

Shunt reactors (SRs) are used in high voltage energy transmission systems to control the voltage dur...

Readiness Level
TRL 9

Gas Insulated Lines (GIL) DC

Direct Current Gas Insulated Lines (GIL), known as DC CTL – Compact Transmission Line for HVDC, is a...

Readiness Level
TRL 4
TRL 5

HVDC Mass Impregnated (MI) Cables

HVDC Mass Impregnated (MI) cables are a very consolidated and traditional technology mainly deployed...

Readiness Level
TRL 9

HVDC XLPE (Cross-linked Polyethylene)

Favourable installation, operation and testing parameters have led to the development of extruded in...

Readiness Level
TRL 3
TRL 7

AC Power Transformers (with Tap Changer)

AC Extra High Voltage (EHV) power transformers are an essential component of the power system enabli...

Readiness Level
TRL 9

Fault Current Limiter

Fault Current Limiters (FCLs) act as an additional high impedance to limit high fault currents to an...

Readiness Level
TRL 3
TRL 9

Asset Management, Tools and Procedures

Asset management (AM) is one of the most important chapters in the operation of the power system (an...

Readiness Level
TRL 3
TRL 9

Digital Fault Recorders

A digital fault recorder (DFR) is an intelligent electronic device (IED)^1 that samples binary data ...

Readiness Level
TRL 9

Hybrid AC/DC OHL

Hybrid AC / DC OHL is a technology used to increase the transmission capacity of existing mainly AC ...

Readiness Level
TRL 7
TRL 9

Line-Commutated Converters - Current Source Converters

Line-commutated converters (LCCs) are the conventional, mature and well-established technology used ...

Readiness Level
TRL 9

Enhanced Load Forecasting

Conventional load forecasting techniques have been widely used over the past 30 years. These forecas...

Readiness Level
TRL 5
TRL 9

Enhanced RES Infeed Forecasting - Wind

The massive penetration of weather-dependent RES generation brings several challenges to power syste...

Readiness Level
TRL 9

Drones and Robotics

Power grid inspection and AM are an integral part of power grid maintenance. Drones and robotic tech...

Readiness Level
TRL 7

Conventional Conductors

High Voltage AC Overhead Lines (OHL) are most commonly used for the transmission of energy. Thereby,...

Readiness Level
TRL 9

HVAC XLPE (Cross-linked Polyethylene)

HVAC cables are typically used as an alternative transmission technology when overhead lines are not...

Readiness Level
TRL 7
TRL 9

High Temperature Low Sag Conductors (HTLS)

High Temperature Low Sag Conductors (HTLS) can withstand operating temperatures of up to 210 °C, thu...

Readiness Level
TRL 4
TRL 9

Dynamic Line Rating (DLR)

The Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) of OHL uses the fact that the ampacity of OHL depends on ambient condi...

Readiness Level
TRL 9

Network Code for Market

The network code family focusing on the market perspective in the grid can be decomposed into the ca...

Readiness Level
TRL 1

Network Code for Operations

System operation Network code contains details about the requirements and principles of operational ...

Readiness Level
TRL 1

Network Code for Connection Points

To overcome technical barriers regarding the new generation of RES inverters, the high penetration o...

Readiness Level
TRL 1

Demand Response to Information

Information about own consumption patterns, and sometimes electricity prices or the consequences of ...

Readiness Level
TRL 7

Demand Response to Price

Variable spot prices, time-of-use (ToU) tariffs and variable grid tariffs provide incentives for sma...

Readiness Level
TRL 9

Microgrid for Reliability of Supply

Microgrids become increasingly independent of the grid when there is communal storage and increased ...

Readiness Level
TRL 5

Local Energy Trading

Market platforms for local energy trading, including peer-to-peer trading, are currently being devel...

Readiness Level
TRL 7

Voltage Market (for Distributed Energy Resources)

Voltage control services are required when there are sudden changes in demand. This is because the a...

Readiness Level
TRL 5

Aggregation of Industrial Demand

The aggregation of industrial demand can increase participation in balancing and flexibility markets...

Readiness Level
TRL 8

Market Coordination Platforms

Flexibility market platforms offer integrated solutions for purchasing and selling flexibility. They...

Readiness Level
TRL 5
TRL 9

Virtual Power Plants

The aggregation of distributed renewable energy generation and batteries enables their participation...

Readiness Level
TRL 7

Aggregation of Small-Scale Demand

Aggregation of small-scale demand is necessary in the present power systems for small loads to be ab...

Readiness Level
TRL 6
TRL 8

Battery for Reliability of Supply

To avoid blackouts or to enable a black start it is useful for the power grid that parts of it can b...

Readiness Level
TRL 5

Black Start from Generation (Distributed Energy Resources)

The large growth in DER presents an opportunity to develop a new approach to black-start; however, t...

Readiness Level
TRL 3
TRL 8

Supercapacitor in Hybrid Storage

This solution describes a supercapacitor which is used in combination with flywheel and battery stor...

Readiness Level
TRL 6
TRL 9

Battery Technology

This solution consists of utilising the fast and versatile nature of batteries to provide ancillary ...

Readiness Level
TRL 8

LAES/CAES + Flywheel

Mechanical storage includes storage methods such as compressed air energy storage (CAES), liquid air...

Readiness Level
TRL 7
TRL 9

Hydrogen and Methane Production

Electricity can be stored in chemical products such as hydrogen and methane. These production facili...

Readiness Level
TRL 6
TRL 7

Flexible Generation

Controllable power production can contribute to frequency balancing, adequacy and congestion managem...

Readiness Level
TRL 4
TRL 9

Electric Vehicle Demand Response

EV chargers, particularly ‘super-fast’ ones, can pose challenges for congestion management, as well ...

Readiness Level
TRL 5
TRL 6

Industrial Demand Response for Congestion Management and Adequacy

Power-intensive industry can adjust its consumption of power to the production of power in the grid ...

Readiness Level
TRL 9

Thermal Storage

Thermal storage uses heat to store energy so that when demand peaks, the heat can produce electricit...

Readiness Level
TRL 7
TRL 9

Industrial Demand Response for Frequency Balancing and Voltage Control

Power-intensive industry has large loads and fast response time, and therefore already offer reserve...

Readiness Level
TRL 3
TRL 9