Electric vehicle demand response

Electric vehicle (EV) chargers, particularly “super-fast” ones, can pose challenges for congestion management, as well as provide solutions to grid operators. Aggregated demand response from electrical vehicle charging can be used to provide frequency balancing such as fast frequency response (FFR). Vehicle-to- home/vehicle-to-grid technology and control of EVs can help solve congestions in the grid and may in the future be able to provide reactive power for voltage control.


Components & enablers

  • Removal of regulatory barriers
  • Aggregator, TSO and DSO access to metering data
  • Aggregation
  • Availability of good forecasts and consumption data
  • Controllability and observability

State of the art in application and research

Cecovel has currently only developed tools and a platform for monitoring and forecasting demand from 1500 EV chargers. The platform is prepared to send set points (i.e. give orders from TSO to charger to charge or discharge), but regulations prevent this. Therefore, the main contribution at the moment is to aggregate information and improve demand forecasts.

Through Statnett’s project, a FFR pilot with aggregated residential EV chargers through the aggregator Tibber was conducted. Access to the reserve was best at night, and Tibber provided a guaranteed reserve of 0.25 MW (from an 80-90 EV portfolio). The response time was within 2 seconds, but when disconnection was done through the EVs’ own interface (API), only 1/3 of the cars responded as planned1. This shows that EVs are capable of delivering fast frequency control (FFR), but that there is still some need for improvement. The aggregator, Tibber, is therefore planning to develop a solution which does not depend on the response time of the car interface. This suggests that offering frequency balancing services from a fleet of EVs is technically viable, but still requires some improvements to the interface.


Technology Readiness Level

TRL 6 - demonstration:

Statnett pilot validated the ability of a fleet of EVs to provide fast frequency response (FFR) within 2 seconds. However, there are still some challenges to resolve regarding the interface.

TRL 5 – development:

INVADE preliminarily tests DC Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology to provide congestion management and voltage control services to the DSO. The technology is available for very few EVs and has significant deficiencies, such as communications protocols. AC V2G technology is not yet sufficiently developed. Few results are available.


Current focus of R&D and research gaps

REE is looking into how Cecovel can be used to provide frequency balancing and congestion management from EVs. Cecovel is planning on testing application of EV charging control through its platform to provide frequency balancing as a market product. Pilots also test vehicle-to-grid response.


References

[1] Inertia 2020: FFR pilot:

  • Pilot results (in Norwegian). [Link]

    Contact info for further questions: Kari Dalen, Statnett, kari.dalen@statnett.no.

[2] Conversations with Cecovel/RES Electrica representatives: Victor Bermudez Llamusi vbermudez@ree.es, Joan Josep Manresa Ballester jmanresa@ree.es.

[3] INVADE. [Link1] [Link2]

[4] Statnett. Content Assets. Fast Frequency Reserves 2018. [Link]