Flexible generation

Controllable power production can contribute to frequency balancing, adequacy and congestion management, but with more variable generation in the gird the need for flexibility increases. The flexibility of conventional and renewable power plants could be increased by combining generation with local storage or using advanced control algorithms.

Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) can increase flexibility of coal power plants or absorb production peaks from renewable energy resources, reducing the need for curtailment. Thermal energy storage can offer frequency balancing for steam power plants and open- cycle power plants or help with adequacy or congestion management for variable generation.

Battery storage can help both conventional generation and wind and solar plants to provide frequency balancing services and voltage control.

Algorithms can enable wind and solar to provide synthetic inertia, automatic voltage control and automatic generation curtailment, even without the use of storage systems.

Components & enablers

  • Technical integration of the storage units in the generation plant, especially for thermal energy storage.

State of the art in application and research

When wind and solar power plants make up an increasingly large share of the European energy mix, this also leads to less natural inertia. WP5 of the OSMOSE project develops innovative control algorithms for synthetic inertia provision and automatic voltage control from PV and wind power plants. These algorithms are tested in a real-environment framework, assessing their reliability and effectiveness.

OSMOSE also develops and tests generation in combination with a battery energy storage unit in WP5 of the project, to see whether it can provide frequency balancing and voltage support services.

EnergyNest’s product for thermal storage is already commercially available in the market. LAES is being tested together with generation in a small pilot in the Kryolens project.

Technology Readiness Level

  • Synthetic inertia/automatic voltage control from wind/PV: TRL 4 -development:

OSMOSE will demonstrate how industrial wind power plants and can provide synthetic (virtual) inertia and automatic voltage control.

  • Generation+thermal: TRL 9 - implementation:

For thermal storage the EnergyNest’s product is already in the market.

  • Generation+LAES: TRL 5 - development:

Kryolens has only a small-scale pilot on this topic.

  • Generation+battery: TRL 7 - demonstration:

OSMOSE tests a wind power plant in combination with battery storage for synthetic inertia provision and automatic voltage control. Flexitranstore has a similar demonstration on a combined-cycle power plant.

  • Generation automatic curtailment: TRL 8-demostration:

NAZA implements area automatons to curtail renewable generation if constraints appear in the area. A nest version of NAZA will implement distributed controls (TRL 4) and Model Predictive Control algorithm (TRL 6).

Current focus of R&D and research gaps

See State of the art/TRL

As it is obvious, different flexible generation strategies are tested in order to define the optimum system integration.



  • OSMOSE website. [Link]
  • Deliverable D5.1, available on [Link]
  • OSMOSE deliverables. [Link]

[2] Flexitranstore – demo 7. [Link]